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Download File Plants Collection 038 Opuntia Mic...

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Download File Plants Collection 038 Opuntia Mic...

Spiroplasma is a widely distributed endosymbiont of insects, arthropods, and plants. In insects, Spiroplasma colonizes the gut, hemolymph, and reproductive organs of the host. Previous metagenomic surveys of the domesticated carmine cochineal Dactylopius coccus and the wild cochineal D. opuntiae reported sequences of Spiroplasma associated with these insects. However, there is no analysis of the genomic capabilities and the interaction of this Spiroplasma with Dactylopius.

After Three Gorges Dam is constructed, many abiotic stresses in the natural habitat strongly influence plant growth and development, such as summer flooding, infertility, drought, salinity and soil erosion etc. So far, only a few highly tolerant plants have been reported to survive, which include Salix variegate, Morus alba L., Myricaria laxiflora [22, 40]. Among them, Distylium chinense (Fr.) Diels, a rare evergreen ornamental shrub of Hamamelidaceae family known for the beautiful flowers (Fig. 1a), is a native species to the riparian wetland in the TGR area of the Yangtze River and its tributaries [20, 41, 42]. Since 2005, D. chinense was considered as an ideal choice for solid embankment after the construction of the Three Gorges Dam owing to its strong root system, erosion tolerance, strong flooding tolerance and resistance to sand burial soaks [43]. Several biological studies have been made for D. chinense such as morphological characteristics, natural habitat, genetic diversity, community structure, ecological adaptability, reproductive allocation and propagation methods [42, 44, 45]. It should be noted that the roots of D. chinense has been used in traditional Chinese medicine and folk medicine as an analgesic, antirheumatic and diuretic [46]. However, there is no information on the diversity and bioactive potential of endophytes community from D. chinense. Thus, the aim of this study was to provide the first evidence of endophytic fungi diversity within the D. chinense, provide a working collection of endophytes and investigate endophytes with antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activities in order to explore the potential sources of novel drugs.

Three healthy and asymptomatic D. chinense plants were randomly collected from different locations on an island in the Banan district (N29º42'45.63", E106º60'69.43") of Chongqing of China in the Three Gorges Reservoir area in October 2014. All plant materials were immediately sent to the laboratory and stored in a refrigerator at 4C. Each sample tissues were used within 24 h after collection. The plant samples were identified as D. chinense by Prof. Hongping Deng and were preserved in Chongqing Key Laboratory of Plant Resource Conservation and Germplasm Innovation, School of Life Science, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China.

A total of 154 fungal endophytes were isolated from D. chinense plants collected from the TGR area. Among them, 30 different representative morphospecies were determined according to cultural characteristics (Fig. 1b). Of these detected, 30 isolates were categorized into 27 different taxa (Ascomycota, 19; Basidiomycota, 8), and further into nine distinct orders (Fig. 1c). The Fig. 2 showed the phylogenetic tree of 30 fungal strains isolated from the NCBI database and the accession numbers of the matched rDNA-ITS sequences. The supplementary table data (Additional file 1: Table S1) provided detailed information on 30 representative strains, including their sources and isolation frequencies.

As mentioned above, one of the main purposes of this study was to identify endophytic fungi that could be cultured and applied to develop their potentially beneficial properties for plants and humans. All 154 fungal endophytes isolated from D. chinense at TGR were evaluated for their antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer activities (Additional file 1: Table S2-S4). Among the 154 isolates, 99 (64.3%), 153 (99.4%) and 27 (17.


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