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Easton Flores
Easton Flores


What is important to understand is that it is a very advanced setting that could prevent your camera from focusing correctly. I would not start playing with it in the hope of improving the keeper rate with birds in flight, or anything like that.


The Custom modes allow you to save a lot of different parameters, from image quality to AF settings and function buttons. You can create different setup for different shooting needs. For example, I configured C1 for static birds, and C2 for birds in flight, whereas C3 is for portraits of my toddler!

White also reflects all wavelengths of light. Because the words and letters in paragraph text are compact and close together, when white text reflects light, the reflected light scatters and runs into neighboring words and letters. This makes the shape of the words and letters harder to perceive, which affects readability. Compare that with black text, where the black absorbs the light around each word and letter, making them easy to distinguish.

As azurelunatic has already mentioned, reflective light, which is discussed within this article, is how we perceive printed words and colours, such as text in a book or in a newspaper, and is not relevant when discussing how to use colour displayed on a computer monitor.

Computer monitors are based almost entirely on transmissive light, which is not the same as reflective light, and the issues that affect how we should approach type for online are therefore not covered at all within this article. Transmissive light comes with its own issues and considerations.

This is a confused and poorly researched article. Quite apart from the confusion surrounding transmitted vs reflected light, the author makes claims and attempts to back them up with ill-sourced references. Example: yes white light is a mixture of all visible light frequencies and may stimulate all light receptors in the human eye equally, but why does this make it more stressful on the eye? No source is provided to substantiate this claim.

I find light (not white, or florescent green) text on a dark background less stressful to read, and i also like text in a variety of colors (as my site has them). But after reading this i am going to experiment with a off black background. And i thank God for eyes to see, and for color.

I still think White on Black is more readable. The only reason I can seeing Black on white is when there is a large amount of glare. With a white background, the amount of glare is less apparent, but in general, I prefer white on black as the words seem sharper to sort of stick out of the background rather than just the absence of light. I think the human eyes naturally pick up on brighter colors than dark.

The human eye has 2 kinds of receptors, rods and cones. Rods determine luminance (brightness) and cones determine chrominance (color). The eye can sense more fine shades in the middle of the visible light spectrum, right at green, which is why old computer monitors and new night vision goggles use green as their main display color.

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This project is a little more challenging, but the idea is basically the same as the last circuit.Parts List:7 segment display (common cathode)7x150ohm resistors4x10kohm resistors4511 decoder chipA 7 segment display is a component that contains 7 rectangular LEDs (we'll ignore the DP LED for now) arranged so that they can display the numbers 0-9 (see figure 2). Each of the LEDs in the display are connected to a common cathode. By looking at the diagram at the bottom of figure 2, we can see that pins 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, and 10 each connect to an anode of one of the seven LEDs and pins 3 and 8 both connect to the common cathode (see the bottom diagram in figure 2).As in the last circuit, we need to use current limiting resistors to prevent damaging the LEDs in the display. In this step we will wire 7 current limiting resistors and individually control the 7 LEDs.The first step is to calculate the resistance we need for the current limiting resistors.From the 7 segment display datasheet: each LED has a forward voltage of 2.2V at 25mA of current. If there is 2.2V across the resistor, then there will be 5V-2.2V, or 2.8V across the resistor.Using Ohm's Law (V=IR) we can calculate our current limiting resistance as follows:(5V-2.2V) = 0.025 A * RR = 112ohmsto be safe we won't run the LEDs at their maximum power ratings, so we'll use 150ohm resistors.Wiring Steps:-again, disconnect power to your breadboard to avoid damaging your components-press the 7 segment display into breadboard so the it straddles the center section of the board (figure 1)-connect one of the common cathode pins of the display (pins 3 or 8) to ground (figure 3)-connect power across to the other side of the board (figure 4)-insert 7 current limiting resistors onto breadboard so that they connect pins 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, and 10 to 5V (figure 5)-turn on power (figure 6)Your 7 segment display should light up to display the number "8." Experiment with disconnecting some of the jumper wires between the current limiting resistors and the display to make other numbers/letters; I made the letter "E" in the last image by disconnecting pins 4 and 6 on the display.

In this step we will use a chip called a 4511 binary to 7 segment decoder to make displaying numbers on the 7 segment display much more simple. This chip connects to the 7 segment display so that when we give it a binary number input (0000-1001), it will output the base ten value (numbers 0-9) on the display.The pin configuration of the 4511 is given in the datasheet, and I've copied it in figure 2. Notice how pin numbering starts at 1 at the top left of the chip (indicated with a semicircle or sometimes a dot) and wraps around the outside of the chip until ending at 16 in the top right.Wiring Steps:-disconnect power to the board-put the 4511 on the breadboard so that it straddles the middle section of the board (figure 4)-disconnect the 5V connections of the 150ohm resistors and connect to 4511 pins Qa-Qg. You will probably need to use jumper wires to extend these connections (green wires in figures 5, 6, and 7). Pin numbering/letters are given in the diagram at the bottom of figure 3 for the display and in figure 2 for the 4511.-use four 10kOhm resistors to create a connection between the 4511 input pins (1, 2, 6, and 7) and four spare rows on the breadboard (figure 8)-connect 5v to 4511 pins 3, 4, and 16 (red wires in figure 9)-connect ground to 4511 pins 5 and 8 (black wires in figure 10)-connect the free ends of the 10kohm resistors to ground (red wires in figure 11)-power on, you should see the number 0 (figures 12 and 13)Try connecting the 4511 input pins (red wires connected to 10kOhm resistors to 5V to make different numbers. Here is a table that shows you how to convert from binary to decimal:D0(pin 7) D1(pin 1) D2(pin 2) D3(pin 6) decimal 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 2 1 1 0 0 3 0 0 1 0 4 1 0 1 0 5 0 1 1 0 6 1 1 1 0 7 0 0 0 1 8 1 0 0 1 9So if you connect D0 to 5V and D1-3 to ground you should see a 1(figure 14)D0 and D1 to 5V and D2 and D3 to ground gives a 2 (figure 15)Troubleshooting:Since there are so many connections, it is easy to make a small mistake that causes the whole project to malfunction. If the display is not lighting up at all: check to see if all your components are powered and are connected in the correct orientation. If it is on but displaying nonsense: carefully check the schematic and make sure your connections between pins a-g are correct.I've also attached a fritzing document for this circuit for your reference, find it below. 041b061a72


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