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Early filmmakers showed the world that a movie director could be an artist. But not every movie director. Because part of auteur theory is knowing how to define auteur directors. Before auteur theory, Directors were important, but the other factors were still more significant. Stars. Studios. Producers.
In particular, he championed Alfred Hitchcock and Howard Hawks. It's no accident that a future filmmaker was the one to get the auteur theory ball rolling. Peter Bogdanovich would later spend years interviewing the great directors, celebrating auteur theory. He went on to make his movies.
But the strictest auteur definition applies to directors only, as they are the ones imbuing a written source with a unique artistic interpretation. In other words, an auteur director uses only their directing skill to create meaning.
It went to some extremes at times, but the fundamental notion that a filmmaker is an artist comes directly from auteur theory. The idea that studying a director and his or her work can make you better also came out of it.
oK, maybe I need to read some more. Auteur means author "originator or creator" of a work. If Spielberg has successfully directed film with creativity and signature but it was fueled by the intake of another artist work, then Spielberg is not the originator. If you say Spielberg is the true auteur then this is about directors that can only visual someone else idea. That is contradiction of author "originator". Spielberg work is a by-product of writers original thought. If Auteur is to be a notable term privileged to a few, it should hold true to being an artist that scripts, produces, and directs their work.
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A lot of questions come with the idea of auteur theory, but we feel the most important one to answer is how can it make you better at making movies. It's a term used to articulate how the great directors molded their films on every level to reflect their perspectives and visions. Sure, it needs some updating and a little background, but the idea of it can still help guide the modern "one-man-band" filmmaker to getting their projects seen.
The auteur meaning (when it comes to film and cinema) is a specific kind of director who has such a strong signature sensibility that you know his or her film without seeing their name on it. They authored the film.
"A great director has to at least be a good director." Wrote Sarris. Which means you can't be considered an auteur if you directed Manos The Hands Of Fate. You have to have all the basic competency, as he called it, down.
So now that we know full well what this theory is all about, who is considered an OG auteur and who isn't and why... let's talk about updating it. Because cinema has changed a lot since Truffaut and Sarris were writing about this idea.
We're all about inclusiveness and highlighting the work of the collective on a project. Let's make a new list of what might qualify someone for being an auteur. And then after we do this we'll talk about why it might actually be helpful.
Let's propose that to be an auteur you should have 1. at least 5 projects within different genres that also 2. employ varying key collaborators AND YET... here comes the tricky part... 3. feature a consistent world view and style.
Chayevsky is perhaps best known for the prophetic newsroom/media epic Network. But looking at the rest of his career, it does seem like as a screenwriter he had enough impact that you could make a case that he is an auteur. Network, Altered States, Marty, The Americanization of Emily, and The Goddess all had different directors and stars within different genres.
Sometimes I think of John Huston. He was responsible for some great movies, but not all of his movies are that good. He seems like he could "get" some stories so well. I think he honestly made "Treasure of the Sierra Madre" better than the book. "Maltese Falcon" is awesome. "Key Largo", "Asphalt Jungle", "The Dead", "Life and Times of Judge Roy Bean", "Red Badge of Courage" (even though it's crippled), "Fat City", "African Queen", "The Misfits", and "The Man who would be King" are all such amazing stories. Most are adapted from literature. I think he might have had one or two original screenplays, but they aren't among his hits. He made a few other movies that just don't seem to have much redeeming value at all. He was most of the time a very perceptive reader of stories, good at getting the essence into the final film product. But I can't imagine trying to shoehorn him into an auteur. He lived a crazy larger than life sort of life. He made some of the best movies ever made. But he isn't big enough to fit into the auteur theory. That's more or less why the theory doesn't work for me all that well. But John Ford makes it. Yeah, he made some great movies, but so many of them have stupid contrived tacked on love stories, where you wish you could excise it from the meatier part of the story. Huston didn't allow that most of the time. Just made the story as entertaining as he could. His "The Killers" stays true to an essence of Hemingway. Hawks "To Have or Have Not" has absolutely no relation to Hemingway's version, other than taking place in the Caribbean. Still a fine, fun movie, but I like to imagine how Huston might have done it. I bet it wouldn't have sacrificed the plot so much. I don't know. I have mixed thoughts on it.
Here's a link to an interview of Walter Hill that kinda gets to some similar thoughts about Huston. Whole interview is good. Scroll down (or command f) to Huston / Peckinpah comparison that pretty well illustrates some of my difficulty in taking auteur theory too seriously.
It's quite a complex theory here! In France "film d'auteur' just means that the director also wrote the script. That's it. Which is quite common in France (filmmakers sometimes work with a co-author), for good films and very bad films too.
Some of this Cahiers du Cinéma criticism would go on to launch the careers of some of the most famous names in French New Wave and auteur theory itself with the likes of film critic-turned-director François Truffaut, Jean-Luc Godard (another film critic), Agnès Varda, and Jacques Demy.
After its explosion with The French New Wave, the concept of auteur cinema would become a worldwide phenomenon as filmmakers across the globe took on stronger roles in their projects to tell more personal stories, explore recurring themes in their films, and develop a consistent artistic identity as well as an overall director's artistic vision.
There are also many issues to address in terms of how auteur theory can be problematic. Just look back at film history and its lack of inclusiveness, or think about how auteur theory could empower filmmakers to put their visions above everything or everyone else on the project.
When discussing auteur theory, young academics often quickly cite French filmmaker and theorist François Truffaut as the original source, in particular his article A Certain Tendency in the French Cinema, published in 1954. However, the seeds for auteur theory were planted in an earlier essay by a different Frenchman. Alexandre Austruc likened directors of film to writers in his hugely influential 1948 essay The Birth of a New Avant-Garde: La Camera-Stylo.
While reviewing the tape supposedly sent to Riverdale High by the voyeur/auteur, Betty and Charles catch a glimpse of Mr. Honey in the reflection of a window. Betty, Jughead, and Charles confront Mr. Honey with a screenshot of him making the aforementioned video that he claims was sent by the Voyeur, but in actuality, was sent by himself in order to have a reason to cancel prom. Mr. Honey denies having any type of feud or vendetta against them, claiming that he was only trying to prepare them for a life outside of Riverdale. However, Betty and Jughead are unconvinced and they have already reported Honey to the school board.
(5) L'évolution technologique a multiplié et diversifié les vecteurs de création, de production et d'exploitation. Si la protection de la propriété intellectuelle ne nécessite aucun concept nouveau, les règles actuelles en matière de droit d'auteur et de droits voisins devront être adaptées et complétées pour tenir dûment compte des réalités économiques telles que l'apparition de nouvelles formes d'exploitation.
(12) Il est également très important, d'un point de vue culturel, d'accorder une protection suffisante aux oeuvres protégées par le droit d'auteur et aux objets relevant des droits voisins. L'article 151 du traité fait obligation à la Communauté de tenir compte des aspects culturels dans son action.
(23) La présente directive doit harmoniser davantage le droit d'auteur de communication au public. Ce droit doit s'entendre au sens large, comme couvrant toute communication au public non présent au lieu d'origine de la communication. Ce droit couvre toute transmission ou retransmission, de cette nature, d'une oeuvre au public, par fil ou sans fil, y compris la radiodiffusion. Il ne couvre aucun autre acte.
(25) L'insécurité juridique qui entoure la nature et le niveau de protection des actes de transmission à la demande, au moyen de réseaux, d'oeuvres protégées par le droit d'auteur et d'objets relevant des droits voisins doit être supprimée par la mise en place d'une protection harmonisée au niveau communautaire. Il doit être clair que tous les titulaires de droits reconnus par la présente directive ont le droit exclusif de mettre à la disposition du public des oeuvres protégées par le droit d'auteur ou tout autre objet protégé par voie de transmissions interactives à la demande. Ces transmissions sont caractérisées par le fait que chacun peut y avoir accès de l'endroit et au moment qu'il choisit individuellement. 59ce067264